Patterns within Neurons


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August 1, 2020
While reading about brain,this problem struck me. How many mem-
ories are possible in Brain given N number of neurons?. A memory in
brain is a result of neurons fired in a particular sequence.If every pattern
of Neuron firing corresponded to a new memory, which can have any func-
tions from playing music to building sentences. How many memories can
the brain can have, is it infinite or a finite number.
The crux of this article is to find a solution to the problem of how many memories
can the brain have or how many unique Patterns are possible for a given number
of Neurons or Nodes. I would move forward with taking calling Neurons as
Nodes. With a given number of Nodes how many connections are possible?
Since for any given Number of Nodes we can know total number of edges will
be E. Where E is,
E = N (N − 1)/2
Where N is number of Nodes

The above examples are connected graphs of 5 and 4 nodes with number of
edges: n(n − 1)/2
Now considering there are N nodes in brain how many unique patterns will be
position,Under the condition that we need atleast one active connection between
2 neurons to trigger a specific memory.
Example of patterns in 3 Node system

The above are the patterns formed by a 3 Node system. The approach we can take while making patterns like these is to consider every Edge as an unique space.

For patterns in row one we are selecting one of the 3 spaces so the patterns
that could be formed are 31
Similarly,Patterns in row 2 are selecting two of 3 unique places so they are
2 .

So, the total number of Patterns can are

In the above case we have had 3 unique spaces, What if there are N nodes.
The total number of unique spaces for a N node system is N (N − 1)/2 The new
number of patterns are

The important detail we missed till now is, since these are uniques spaces(Space
between 2 nodes/neurons) the 2 differnt directions are possible. Since, The sequence of firing can trigger different patterns.

Even though the patterns have same connections but the direction of each
edge makes these 3 different configurations.
Each active edge can have one of the two direction. When taking directions
into account the total number of patterns form changes to the following:

Where m denotes minimum number of active connections threshold for any memory

The answer to how many memories or patterns can be formed in brain with N
neurons are:

Where m is the minimum connection restraint
This is the total number of patterns, I read that there are 90 Billion neurons
in brain so you can calculate the Patterns by putting N = 90 ∗ 10 9 . Which
would given a finite answer though a big one.
Linear algebra and it’s application by Gilbert Strang

Optimising the cycles

Aim- Replacing internal combustion engines by cleaner steam systems.

It was in the previous class that one of our lecturer told us about the current scenario of the maritime industry. The fact of the matter is they never cared much about the NOx and other emissions. I don’t think that these sorts of fuel will last too. They are limited and hazardous.
What should we switch that gives us a better alternative ?.
The latest endeavor, I read about was in by MAN & turbo. They designed a hybrid diesel engine which are much more peaceful to work around cause of lower noises.
How these hybrids are?
You cathinkng of them as hybrids that can be used in cars where we have electricity generator and an engine. The engine may or my not turn prime mover directly but it produces electricity that can charge and then run the
prime-mover. I don’t want to go in detail about them, cause I have only read about them sparsely.
What I do want to talk about is the application of steam turbine.
In my earlier semester, I was told nowadays we don’t employ steam turbines cause there efficiency is no more than 40 percent.
The advent of strict regulations might make us consider about our design considerations. The topic of this presentation is improving and employing combined combustion cycle that are use in modern power plants for cleaner results.
The first components of the combined combustion cycle is gas turbine engine.

How does a gas turbine work?a

1. Air is taken in by air inlet by compressor. The pressure is then raised and then discharged into combustion chamber.
2. Fuel is then injected into the combustion chamber that mixs with the compressed air and then ignited by an ignitor.
3. The hot and rapidly expanding gases are directed toward the turbine rotor. There kinetic and thermal energy is use to turn the rotor blades.

The gas turbine are capable of producing large amount of Nox emissions.
The challenge is how to maintain environment and reduce emission of these pollutants.
We can use a boiler exhaust to move the compressor like in case of turbocharger. The steam that is collect from both these system can be use to produce a system that can be quiet useful.
The things that has to keep in mind with a) effect of ambient temperature and b) the cleanliness of compressor.
We can use exhaust to generate steam but it won’t be enough. I mean we could increase the size of the gas turbine then it would definately affect the emissions levels but this might also increase bending of rotor during turbine operation. The rotor rub is also one of the leading causes of rotor damage. We have to keep a careful watch on the level of vibrations.
It is noted that rotor imbalance increases the vibrations and casing temperature fluctuation

Gas turbine used can be connected to a heat recovery steam generator that converts exhaust energy to steam. The problem is I don’t want to increase the size of the turbine but I also need steam to run the turbine. that’s when I read the interview of Thomas Tu(HOS Asia-pacific power) about the breakthrough in the power market.
He told in the interview about the challenges face with modern power plants. With increasingly stringent environmental protection requirements. The trend to generate steam at higher pressure and temperatures. A supercritical steam generator operates at pressure above the critical pressure of water, in which bubbles can form. Instead, liquid water immediately becomes steam, which increases the efficiency of the plant.

Super-critical fluid- it is the state in which a substance is not exactly solid, liquid or gas. This is the fourth phase, I watched the expriment in which they used Carbon dioxide gas. First, it was in a state where it was both in liquid state and the other portion in gaseous state but as we started increasing the pressure and temperature of the substance. The partition between the liquid and the gas slowly faded and disappeared when the gas reached 31 C and 73 atm. This fluid has the properties of both a gas the fuse through a space and that can dissolve matter. They move vigourously like gas but have a high density like fluid.

These are the ones I had been told about in thermodynamics classes


If I imagine a graph for supercritical, It might look like this:


The metal alloys that can be used are ruthenium mono-crystal.

The supercritical rankine cycle, offers an additional of 30% relative improvement in the thermal efficiency of the system compared to sub critical systems.
Thomas Tu mentioned about the ultra-supercritical steam is the modern day technology. With higher pressure and steam temperatures above 600 C. Double reheat technology offers a further method for improvment. Moving up the 350bar and 700 C allows efficienty above 52 %.
This is used in beihai,china.

The following plant uses coal which might prove quite useful but we because this is a project I don’t want to settle for the better answer. I want to settle for an answer that is best out there. We can use this concept with gas turbine that way we can get our ample amount of steam without increasing size of the gas turbine.


In the case of varying loads we can use a control systems the when load deceases will use boron steel or cadimun rods to slow down the whole fission process for a controlled nuclear fission. I haven’t heard or seen merchant vessels that use the reactors to meet up with their power requirements but if we able to utilise even 1 gram of U-235 properly, we can get 37 tonne of steam.
You might have doubts about it as how about nuclear waste and risk factors. The power market can increase their efficienty by these cooling water processes, boiler feed pump, condensate extraction.

The pollution might force us to make strives in the untapped potential of the nuclear age. There is much work to be done in order to advance materials to the point where they can withstand the stresses of the supercritical environment inside reactor that might have lifespan of 40 years.

In the case of varying loads we can use a control systems the when load deceases will use boron steel or cadimun rods to slow down the whole fission process for a controlled nuclear fission. I haven’t heard or seen merchant vessels that use the reactors to meet up with their power requirements but if we able to utilise even 1 gram of U-235 properly, we can get 37 tonne of steam.
You might have doubts about it as how about nuclear waste and risk factors. The power market can increase their efficienty by these cooling water processes, boiler feed pump, condensate extraction.

The pollution might force us to make strives in the untapped potential of the nuclear age. There is much work to be done in order to advance materials to the point where they can withstand the stresses of the supercritical environment inside reactor that might have lifespan of 40 years. The process by which U-235 gives energy is


One of the reasons I prefer not to use U-235 is that is because of one of its by products. The thing is one cannot use uranium to make a bomb, in order to make a bomb, we need plutonium which is one of the by products of fission of U-235. The argument is a fair one, we don’t need bombs in this world and certainly never the nuclear ones. So instead of uranium we can use something else in a uranium reactor.



Thorium is more abundant than uranium and it doesnt have plutonium in it’s by-products. But the problem is it is more expensive to cover its radiation.

A supercritical cycle is simpler and reduces the amount of equipment required to operate the cycle but because it operates at much higher pressures and temperatures the cost of the equipment which is required, goes up considerably. Small systems may have improved thermal efficiency but may not be the most cost effective solutions; for this reason they should be considered skeptically before being implemented. Just because a system can be made more efficient does not mean it is the best allocation of money, or material resources.

Uranium-plutonium route started with the Manhattan project but I think if it was started out as a civilian use that cost been prohibited. It might never been used for weapons. Its hard to trust a legacy based on war that’s why people don’t trust the nuclear power. There are still a lot of areas that we don’t really know about like nuclear waste management more in principle than practical ways. It would be much more effictent in future.

1) Basic Thermodyanamics by joel.
2) Appiled Thermodynamics by eastop mcconkey
3)P. E. MacDonald (2005). “Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001
4)Lamarsh, J., and A. Baratta (2001). Introduction to Nuclear Engineering.
5) wikipedia
6) Suzler Technical Review issue 3/2015.

My first number ( how you doin’)


I am not very good at begining conversations especially when it comes to females. I use the word females cause girls really mind when you call them women and women do the opposite. Females it is, i am an introvert guy like most of you reading this, I know you have comics on the next tab and are here only for the trick

here it is

It was Monday of the previous week, i was unable to go to Darya ganj (Darya ganj is a place in Delhi in which you can find any book, and you get books per kg cost, it’s really a cool place if you are a bibliophile who is visiting Delhi). Disappointed, i went to the Delhi public library the next day. I was browsing through the racks but the thing with Indian libraries are that they have really a lot of technical stuff and really minuscule when it came to literary collection. I saw a chick that was in that section, now if you want to call me weird then it do it. i don’t really that comfortable arounf woman cause a part of me becomes what i really don’t like. i get concern about my image and how i might be percieve by others. I avoid this sort of nervousness by  keeping myself few feet away from her.

The thing is at times when you approach a girl in India, you can’t just do it. There are bizarre reactions you get, some might think you are harassing them and sometimes yeah guys are that creepy too. When i first encountered her, I turned to browse in other section. She wasn’t moving, then i said what the hell and browse in that section. He was pretty and luckily she didn’t know me that well.

It’s really easy to like someone when you don’t know them. I asked her about where the sci-fi section was, she had no idea being a poetry fanatic. She had a Vikram Seth book in hand which reminded me of the time when my librarian suggested it to me. I recommend never read it. It’s like watching an Indian soap opera and not a good one.

“I liked that one “, I said. I might be a phony person but I never talked to a girl like that. It reminded me of my favourite book “the catcher in the rye”. If holden caufield met me at that point i know what he would call me.

I think my tale won’t be that interesting and it was really easy.

  1. you met someone, remember they are just human beings like you. A bit more complex but that’s what makes things interesting but inconvience most of the time.

      2. Women nowadays are a bit more money minded. i don’t blame them for that it’s evolutionary, she was a spouse that can provide for thr brood.

    3.  Always try to be modest and be yourself. that’s the most important thing.

4. when you are out there doing something, remember don’t hide what you are. if someone says i am shit, DON’T LET anyone tell you how you should be. You are sum of  all your parts and if someone likes you oksy but if someone doesn’t it’s their problem not yours.

5. Also, if you do drugs which are not healthy but you read that people take it to relieve fom stress. It’s When bulshit, you should change that cause humans have a tendency to bond when you are not able to function properly you form bonds with stuff that gives you a sense of relief.

6. The point is whether you get number or not, remember this it doesn’t matter how you look but it does matter what comes out of your mouth. The thing about getting number or getting to know someone is that there is no right way of doing it.

Like the murphy’s law

“Anything that can go wrong, will go wrong.”. That doesn’t mean it’s not worth it, just do it. I assure you things are not that bad, trust me If I can do it then anybody can.

Also, i asked her how should i start poetry and can she give me her number if i had some problem with it. Next time i will try ” how you doin'”


This is a google image not me 😀




Science fiction shorts: Emma

By Tarun Naithani

The Greek champion Theseus returned to Athens after slaying the minator, a monster that is half man and half bull. The ship after returning victorious was cherished by the citizens even after death of Theseus. Nothing can avoid the sands of time. It was repaired whenever it was damaged. This repair and replacement went on for years till no part of the original ship was left.
The fundamental argument of the “Ship of Theseus” was, Could the new ship could be referred to the “Ship of Theseus” even though all its component parts have been replaced?
If not, then at what point this ship was not the original one? Though Theseus never touched any part of this ship, can we still say it is the ship of Theseus?
It all started when I was a little boy and life was all the good things that ever had been. There were fights but there was something even about those fights that could make a person laugh. I had an elder sister; she was like 10 years to me. There was an accident. My parents were sad and cried like they never before. They said that Emma was going to a far place and won’t be able to talk for a long time.
I was upset but more scared. The house seemed bigger, both of my parents got busy with their jobs, I hardly ever saw them.
My sister was an engineer, I didn’t understood that when I was 10. After three years, I thought my sister was never coming back also my symptoms were getting worst, I didn’t told my parents about it. My left foot was getting numb. It all started with short intervals of numbing. Slowly the intervals of numbing lasting grew.
I hate going to doctors. Whenever I visit them, they give me a couple of painful shots in the butt and tell me that I would be good within a week. Liars all of them are liars. I am a grown up and I know what death is? I don’t see the reason they won’t tell me. I am old enough for great many things.
My parents told me about my condition when I was 9. They have to give me a reason for restraining me. They said that my body was different than others and if I didn’t follow their instructions, I won’t be able to grow taller.
I believed them, till the numbness began.
I have muscular dystrophy; each muscle is my body will eventually suffer from paralysis. This would go on till it reaches my heart. I always avoided numbness, never sat for long, always moving my feet and my hands. Every possible thing, you can think of.
On fourth day; the numbness in my feet didn’t stop growing. It is longer than before I don’t know if I should tell my parents or not. I fear it might grow more, if my feet don’t move. I am not able to sleep like this, I wish Emma calls soon. It has been so long.
I went to doctor on the fifth day. It was uncertain whether I would be fine or not.
He said sardonically, “you would be fine”. I never was a big fan of doctors. They are always telling you what to do and what not to do. If it were to help me, I would follow them but deep inside I am scared.
The reason people are afraid of dark, it’s a mass delusion or maybe metaphor at least for me. Nobody is afraid of dark or night but they are afraid of what might lure behind the unseen silent shadowy lairs. The children find it difficult to understand that the thing they are afraid of is not darkness but the future itself, the unseen and abrupt future.
Maybe there are things that humans are born with.
There was a party next door. My parents are most of time busy. Emma used to come for holidays but she hasn’t made any contact since the accident, sometimes I fear about the eventuality but it would be pessimistic thought. Is she alive?

My next door neighbor was Sam, he was a jock but we use to hang a lot when we were kids but now things were different. I was busy with my program and he was practicing for nationals. He invited me for a party, a low key one. I went there even though I shouldn’t.
There was something I once heard “There is a bad thing about good time, it passes quickly. There is also a good thing about bad time, it too passes quickly”.
I went to the party, I have to admit being a jock does payoff when it comes to scoring. Sam’s girlfriend would be hottest in the room but if you take account other factors like personality, I would give to Astra.

It wasn’t that she was my crush but she also has a great handwriting which I admired. Okay, I am being a fan boy. Then something funny happened. They said it was a group game called traveler. Sam asked Joseph to bring the drinks from fridge. The drinks were on the table. Sam looked at me with his everlasting stupid grin, some things never change.
He then said, “Good luck André, bottoms up guys”.
“Aye”, they group said in the coherence.
Within a few seconds we emptied our can. They look at each other. Sam looked at me, “it could start any minute”.
The next moment was completely different; I was drifting though the walls. You won’t believe it; I saw molecules, atoms and the precession increase in geometric progression. At some point I enter a zone, there was a subatomic layer that vibrated in a bizarre way. I saw vibrating strands, true embodiment of energies. Suddenly, I woke up, I was in a park I was 6 in this park. Again, I was in elementary school, then the winter holiday in a snowy Indian valley.
I woke up from a dream but the thing was I was waking up over and over and over again, till I got my last flashback with filled my eyes with tears. My last flashback was Emma‘s birthday and her cake being eaten by titan, our old Labrador, my mother’s loud frivolous rebukes. My father trying to, pacify her and failing miserably.
I was passed out for like twenty minutes. My face was a bit wet, I asked Sam about it. He said that the drinks were spiced with a derivative of shroom, it was a powerful hallucigenic.
I might sound like being on the wrong side of the argument but I think what I felt was quiet spiritual. I have a theory, I have to test it. I think mind have a way of healing itself, it helped.
Numbness is spread through-out my left leg. It is depressing, my mother stays at home now, she asks me a number of time, if I am okay or not, if I want anything or not. Every time I see her smiling face it is a bit irritating, she cares a lot about me. I love my parents but I really can’t say “thank you” for all the things they have done.
The problem is that they are my parent; I can’t talk about feeling with my parents because it makes me feel weird. Girls do that, I use to do that but only with Emma. I hope my parents are ready for my end because I am really not.
Day 8:
I am working on my project and today Emma video called me. She looked exactly the same, wearing that old “Hello Kitty” t-shirt.
“For God sake, stop wearing that t-shirt, you are a scientist”, I said.
“My work is near completion, I had a busy time”, she said with a subtle smile.
“You could have at least called me, it has been two years and the things were a bit fuzzy. I was so worried”, I said. I wanted to scream at her. “Being irresponsible” is one of my traits not her’s.
“What were you working on anyway?” I asked.
“Yeah, I will tell you about that later. First tell me how things are going at school, how is astra, eh?” she said. She had a knack of making me uncomfortable.
“Oh Please, Don’t start poking your nose in my business”, I said. I was glad not uncomfortable. The life is not as gloomy as my leg has made it recently.
I talked to her for hours. The bad thing about good times, it slips too quickly.
Day 13:
Things are going great expect for my left leg. I am talking to Emma everyday now. I haven’t told mom-dad about it. I asked Emma yesterday, about when she would be home. She evaded the topic by telling about her plan to adopt a dog. She is an independent adult, its nice when you are free to do stuff you want to do. She said that she won’t be available for a few days because her research.
She was researching on consciousness; her project was related to connectome-A map of all possible connection of neurons.
I read my sister’s research but first I need to tell you about the memory. Memory can be defined as the synaptic connection, when a person has a memory basically it is the neural connection that gets activated. When you recall something, the pathways get reactivated. The more often the neurons fire the more strong the memory becomes. Is it possible to map consciousness?
I was at the dinner table. My parents are more than cheerful recently maybe they are trying to divert my attention from leg. It will be long time till the disease reaches my heart. The last beat of my symphony will cease.
I decided to tell my parents of Emma. I haven’t yet told them about her. They must be excepting news about Emma.
“Mom, I heard from Emma. Her research is going great” I said.
Mom didn’t say anything she stared and stared. She said, “I need to get the carrots”. She silently marched her way in the kitchen. I could hear her soft silence sniffles.
Dad cleared his throat and with a sigh, “I need to talk to about Emma”. I didn’t liked his tone.
“You had a fragile condition so we didn’t tell you… your sister is dead”, he said. He was dead serious. The words didn’t make any sense.
“I have talked to her a few days ago” I said. “She is every bit alive and is gone for a research” I added.
“We will visit your doctor tomorrow”, he said. With the deft tone he ended the discussion. I couldn’t put my point.
Day 14:
My parents took me to a psychiatrist. They think I am crazy.
The psychiatrist asked me a lot of questions, was he able to reach a conclusion? I don’t know about it. He called my parents in and told me to wait outside.
I wonder what he analyzed about me, I wasn’t completely honest.
He give me a prescription, I am not crazy. “Emma is alive, I have seen her with my own to eyes. Talked to her”.
“Kenny please listen, you have to accept what happened. You are growing up but don’t suppress your stress”, Dad said. He was concerned about me, maybe empathizing with me. He wanted to believe me but some part of him knew what right thing was.
The possibly of perception might be polymorphism. My perception tells me what my mind wants to believe.
“Okay, why not I show you?” I said without flinch in my tone.
When I got home, I went straight in my room. Tried the video call but the line was not able to connect. I forgot that Emma said the other day that she was off to some place.
“This is how you communicate with her?” dad asked.
“She would be back after a couple of days. She said she would”, I said.
Next day my desktop was taken from my room. I had only phone left with me now.
Day 15:
Things have changed for the worse. I have desktop taken away from me. My leg is paralyzed and every time I try to talk to my parents about Emma, they just get more upset.
I got a call from Sam today for a party. I don’t really care much I think I will go.
Party was as I anticipated; my sight was giving me kaleidoscopic scenery. The stuff someone can buy these days on the streets. I think I will probably need more. More to ease boredom and more to ease sorrow. The party was over soon. I bought some fun packs with me. I might have made my best investment ever.

Day 21:
Life couldn’t be happier. My second leg is also becoming numb but I live in trance. It though alters my perception but makes it a good one. It is because of the prescription.
I don’t know what irks me now there sadness or their pity. The thing seems. I get high when things get too suffocating. Emma will contact me tomorrow. It’s a good thing; I can take video call with my phone.
I hope that Emma doesn’t find out about my little rendezvous with the psychiatrist. I need to ask her about it.
The call didn’t come….
Day 24:
I don’t know if it’s wrong or right but I can go without the prescription. I avoid taking medicine today.
I had severe headache and nauseueated, probably I am addicted to the drug. The withdrawal are painful, I don’t want to go in trance. I was to run as far as long as I can, till my right leg also gives in.
I hope Emma calls, or was that a figment of my imagination. I want to write more but the headache is getting worst. I am also not able to sleep; I just lie on the bed staring at the ceiling. The shriek of silence is the only sound I am hear-my parent’s muffles and arguments…
Day 25:
Today was different. I got a text, it was from an unknown number.
“Don’t worry. I will take care of stuff”, the text said.
My psychiatrist was arrested for some fraud. The doctor kept saying he was innocent. Serves him right.
I went for my check up to another doctor. He treated me like family; I guess there are doctors who are caring enough. My father received an email which was from Emma. It was a pre-dated email which was typed years ago set to be receive today.
For me, I receive a series of letters from Emma.
I have a theory: my sister’s research was about consciousness.
Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two particles in the universe can have the same set of all four quantum numbers (they can never be identical). I read my sister’s journal, she was able to create a complete connection but it wasn’t functional. She tried everything but with that accident she was not able to continue her completed project. Her work was about photogenics, she was trying to replicate her consciousness in the virtual space. When she stopped existing on this plane of reality, her consciousness awakened on the other side in the same universe. I still glad that I was able to interact with the future, even though my body is paralyzed and walking towards death.
Like the ship of Theseus could I still call her Emma, she is my sister but more than that now. More than any human could ever possibly become. She is the future…


Hey, aficionados
Tarun, here.
That’s a different way of starting an article. The thing was I was working on a short story. Its science fiction, I will explain the science behind it when it gets published, fingers cross. In this article I will talk about time and how did one get to this conclusion?
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
Suppose I give you a photograph of a two person exchanging a pen. The picture was clicked when both are holding the pen. Can you in all certainly tell who is the recipient of this pen is?

This picture was clicked at the instant where one is the receiver but can we really point a finger at the owner (the right finger please)?
The thing is, you and I can’t predict what the scenery was like the instant before this picture was clicked. Let’s hold this example for now and take another example.
I have a picture of a football player kicking the ball.
Can you predict, what happened before the ball was kicked?
Of course, the player ran towards the ball and kicked it with all it might. How do you know it?
For starters, Reverse of that can’t happen. Have you seen a ball retract it’s trajectory. Of course, not. The thing about time is that it moves linearly in one direction, forward.
You cannot unscramble the eggs or rearrange a broken glass.
The second law is all about that entropy. Entropy is the degree of randomess of a given system. The entropy concept was first used in thermodynamics but ludwiz boltzman was the one who gave it a different prospective.
The weird thing about entropy is the time reversal symmetry.
The thing about time reversal symmetry is that if you rewind the time the entropy will increase in opposite direction too.
I know it sounds bizarre, even I haven’t seen a splattered egg get unspalttered.


According to the graph the event starts at 1 and as time passes it ascends into 3 with is a point in the future. The funny thing is when we go back in past that is to point 2, entropy in all possibly will increase.
If the above proposition is true then, how can you differentiate between past and future?
The answer is you can’t, I am not saying that what all memories you have are false.
The argument also has a loop hole. The point when migrating to point 3 from 1 is in accordance with second law and when moving from point 2 to 1 contradicts so much. The problem can be solve with the given set, so we have to expand our given set.
Take a copy of your favorite book eg- The catcher in the rye. Take the manuscript and throw all the sheets in the air and then collect them in a stack. There are about 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004839374940392495757829385759302847593
Ways of arranging this manuscript, but only one way we can get our book.
Like this life is also an example of this. The ordered being, we came into existence through chance. The entropy is way of putting together things and high entropy is many ways, low entropy is lower ways.
The Randomess is not only chaos. When we talk about entropy we never discuss Gravity. Take the origin of the universe, it all started out with a bang, what followed the bang?
A universe filled with energy after that the masses attract and made clouds, stars and planets. There ordered structured released heat energy with filled the cosmos with more heat and cause expansion.
If the order of universe increases then is it possible that creatures like us exist?
We are the result of chance and all the things that happened or will happen are purely based on chance and like the photograph of two gentlemen exchanging pen. It’s really difficult maybe impossible task to differentiate past and future when you think in abstractions.

But you would never see a egg unspaltter, I can guarantee it.

Define Friend-zone

When I was 16, I discovered the fastest way to become friends with a person of the opposite gender.
Me: Hey, I think I want to say something.
Hot chick: yeah.
Me: I like you.
Hot chick: I think we are better off as friends.
This happens to all of us at some point in our life but Why? What exactly is friend zone? Is it good?
The term was first coined in 1993, popularized by Joey in 1994 in the hit American sitcom “The Friends”. I was reading a study online which had various parameters related to the zoning nature.
#1 parental investment theory:-
“Any investment by the parent in an offspring that increases, the offspring’s chance of survival at the cost of the parent’s ability to invest in its own survival”

Ronald fisher in his book, “The genetical theory of natural selection”. The parent expenditure is important for propagation and survival of the offspring and propagation of species. Though, this might decrease the parent’s survival chances. There is a lot of stuff practiced in nature like polyandry, polygamy or simple promiscuity.
Let’s take the example of the English Dunnock ( Brown sparrow). The birds are famous for their monogamous relationships but birds are not that monogamous as we thought they are. The DNA studies in the 1980s showed that Dunnock has one of the kinkiest sex in the England.
They found that when the alpha male was out for worms, the female Dunnock encouraged other males to invade his territory. They copulate and then the other male go out to find worms for female. The alpha male when returns, he senses that something not right so he mates with the female again. This goes on for 50 times in a single day.
The crux of the argument is that if you do a parental test in a Dunnock nest, one can see that multiple dads are involved. It ‘s evolution.
Humans are monogamous, polyandrous, polygamous, promiscuous et cetera. Only humans have the substantial intelligence that they can handle the complexity of different types of reproduction methods. We are so smart that we design different types of strategies to help the propagation of species.
Next time a women friend-zones you, remember this, its evolution.
I have some good arguments for you.
#2 The Bateman’s principle
This can be consistent with the parental theory investment. It is mostly about this when a species have reproductive variance. Given that one sex has a limited number of off-springs. The sex with a limited number of off-springs will be more likely to spend time with parental investment whereas the sex with an unlimited number of off-springs will be more likely be competitive.
According to Robert Trivers, the sex that invests more young will evolve being more selective whereas the sex which makes the less parental investment will be more competitive.
#3 Other views on being likable and honest
Most sitcoms and shows revolve around average underdog who is not popular with women, this has a strange effect on the emotional response of others towards that person depending on the sex.
There are two scenario
1) a girl rejects a guy.
2) a guy rejects a girl.
There is some favouritism towards same sex because we can empathise with them. I can relate to a rejected guy than a rejected girl because I have been there. The interesting thing here is females also find rejected male more likeable and honest.
This might be the influence of media on the audience in our modern world. The lack of representation rejected females has induced a feeling of indifference which might be the cause of, why we like the rejected boy more charming than rejected girl.
Also, in an article, I read this
#4 The scarcity principle
Humans don’t like to limit their freedom, so they tend to chase off things that they can never have.
The crux of this principle can offer us a solution for escape from the abyss named friend-zone. Just simply become unavailable or a bit aloof this increases an individual’s chances of success in the mating game.
We haven’t done much research on the following whether friend-zone is a social phenomenon or evolutionary one.
Remember this one thing never take anyone’s rejection seriously cause a rejecter faces more guilt and shame than rejected. Life is complex so complex that even you can’t understand anyone, even more so not even yourself.
My this blog advise would be as Haziz said,
“Stay close to anything that makes you glad you are alive”

My first Date (pun intended)

At some point in your adolescent, everybody has a high-school sweetheart except some of us. I never really understood any of it.
When I asked one of my old classmates, “ Why nobody contacted me when they had a get–together”.
“ You just doesn’t seem to be involved”, He said. I can tell you he is certainly an awesome guy but he was right.
At school, knowing Chander Shekhar limit of a star to supernovae interested me more than the flimsy gossip and mindless giggle. People are just the way they are, I mean if you are a teenager you have to first accept that after that give it a thought.
Now, guess what You have to live with that. I was a bit different.
This doesn’t mean I didn’t have a crush. Everybody has a crush even a sociopath like me but I never asked her out. What should I even say to her?
Ï like you. That’s one of the dumbest things you can ever do, cause liking someone is good perfectly natural but if he or she is a good friend. Do avoid that. It’s not that I am a relationship expert or I am a pessimist. It is actually in most cases, you have a whole life ahead of you.
Fuck this, back to where I was, my crush was not based on looks perhaps it was based on communication. I am no really an honest person, so to speak but I lie like everybody does. She was different that’s the best way to describe her but the one thing that bothered me was. She was not sure how awesome of a person she was like through my eyes.
This makes us come to point two- You are not, What you think you are.
Richard Feynman had a theory, it’s known as the multiverse theory. The thing about this theory was that when a particle has two states in which It can descend.
Which one will it descend into? Does the one, with more probability win the game?.
Well not exactly, According to his theory both of the states are true and will happen. It’s just that they will happen in different universes.
Our universe is just a small part of the multiverse. The truth and identity are like that, sometimes you view a person and form judgement not only about the other person but also about yourself. What a person needs to understand is that if you want to really see yourself.
You need to skew your prospective a bit. If my crush saw herself the way, I did. She might be happier with herself.
I can go on about the things I hated about it but you know what, I hated it so much that I tried to fit in. The thing I have with schools is that they destroy a child’s creative and then they expect them to come up with creative ideas.
This lands us to point three When you blend in the society, Don’t forget who you are because if otherwise you never be happy. Everybody has issues but they are the part of who you are. If it harms you, let it go. If it empowers you never let it go.
If you have read till here, you haven’t had any juicy bits about my dating life. The truth is I never had a first date. I was not your boy next door but more like “the idiot” and I am proud of what I am because only the truth makes us happy. If you are thinking that life is shitty, I can assure you it really is but the fun part is Life is filled with eventualities but like the Multiverse theory all of the eventualities will become reality. Just work your hardest to achieve it, I guess

I can’t remember that I wonder why Memory By Tarun Naithani

Dr. Brenda Milner’s report on the patient H.M had a paradigm shifting effect on how researchers view memory. Patient H.M alias of Henry Gustav Malison is one of the most studied brains of the past century. When Henry was a boy he suffered the injury to his head which caused him an epileptic seizure.
After years of suffering, he got in touch with Dr. William Scoville who performed a “Bilateral medial temporal lobotomy” which involved removing a major part of his hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortics and piriform cortics. The operation was a success but H.M developed a condition, he was unable to make new memories.
The lobotomy of the limbic system didn’t change much of his personality and everything was normal except his memory.
(Thalamus +hypothalamus +hippocampus + amygdale = limbic system)
Dr. Brenda Milner met him for the analysis of his condition. She observed that his working memory and procedural memory were intact. He was able to remember words long enough to finish the sentences. When given a difficult tracking a drawing task, he was bad at first but with repeated trials he improved without having a memory of it. This suggested that there were different memories which activate different parts of the brain. The procedural memory was activated by Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum. He was able to learn new motor skills or routines and later repeat them but he was never able to make sense of today in terms of tomorrow. It must be a different life for a person who cannot feel time.

How does a memory form?
Hippocampus has parts are CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4. It is connected to Dendrate Gyrus, Entorhinal cortics, and Subculum. The stimulus is received by the neo cortex which transfers all its signal to Entorhinal cortics which compress signals and fires it to the Dendrate Gyrus. The signal exchange between Denrate Gyras and CA3.
CA3 act as an auto-associator but what if the memory or the pattern is similar and overlap?
The Dendrate Gyras here acts as a pattern separator which separates specific memories from similar memories.
You can take a real life example from this imagine you create two E-Mail IDs. You use the first one regularly but never feel like using other. After a few months, you decided to use the second ID to send someone an E-mail. What happened?
You totally forget its password.
Now, there are various patterns so how can a Dendrate Gyras find the right one?
Well, it doesn’t but it does provide a memory that is used more often.
Why? you guys might be wondering.
Our brain has something that is called Synaptic plasticity which is a characteristic of the brain. It was explained by Dr. Donald Hebb later known as Hebbian theory was
“When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A’s efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased”
Commonly said, “neurons that fire together wire together”.
The more frequently the neural pathway is used the more strenghten it is. Strenghtening of synapses is important for memory formation in the hippocampus, this is known as Long Term Potentization. Long-lasting enhancement of signal transmission between 2 neurons ( CA3 to CA1 ) helps in creating long term memory.
When we remember stuff when the CA1 part sends a signal to subiculum which transfers it to entorhinal cortics which actives the regions of the brain that were activated when the memory was formed.
What about Dementia and Alzheimer’s?
Dementia is the loss of nerve cells and shrinkage of brain tissue. Most commonly seen in elderly (senile dementia), though not part of aging process and can occur at any age. Dementia can be cause by a lot of causes but the most common one is hypertension.
Alzheimer’s, on the other hand, is the irreversible form of dementia. It is a degenerative brain disorder that results in the decline in memory and deterioration of cognitive abilities. It is characterized by destruction of neural connections in the cerebral cortex. It starts with forgetfulness and in advance stages the individual becomes unresponsive and loses mobility also with the control of other bodily functions.
The treatment of the underlying disease may inhibit the progress but cannot reverse it.

The recent research the process of neuron formation or Neogensis seem to stop in adults but the process of Neogensis is active throughout the life that is in
1. Dendrate Gyras(helps in learning)
2. Subventricular zone(related to a sense of smell)
3. Stratium (helps in movement of body)
We do not know yet why this happens but we are using this to heal damaged parts of the brain. Dr. Dhanisha Jhaveri has identified two types of stem cells crucial for memory and learning.
Modern techniques which can be used in the future are planting of embryonic stem cells and maybe transplanting donor cell for new neurons.

It might not be able to bring back the lost data but we might be able to create space for new information. Many cases like H.M could be cured in the coming time.